|08-30-2008, 01:42 AM||#1|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
Beta-Alanine - Jack up your ventilatory threshold!
Jose Antonio, Ph.D., CSCS, FACSM
In the zany world of sports supplements, there are the ‘real deal’ supplements like creatine and the essential amino acids, and then a list of pretenders like bull testes, ferulic acid, and god-knows-what else. I’d like to introduce you to perhaps the ‘latest’ in a short line of ‘real deal’ supplements. What is it? Sugar plus water? Ha! Nice try. It’s, drumroll please…Beta-Alanine!
So how does beta-alanine work? By buffering the build-up of what us science types call ‘hydrogen ions’ or H+. For instance, have you ever felt that nasty burn at the end of a 400-meter sprint or at the last rep of squats? That is a build up of H+. Because acidic buildup occurs in all types of activity, in all muscle fiber types, and beta-alanine can buffer it, it makes sense that by supplementing with beta-alanine, your workouts become better, more intense, with the end result you being bigger, faster, and stronger.
How Does it Work?
Beta-alanine is used to make something called carnosine. It is actually carnosine, in your muscles, that acts as a buffer. Carnosine is a dipeptide (i.e. two amino acids bound together) found primarily in fast-twitch muscle. With higher carnosine levels in muscle, however, you prevent the drop in pH. With H+ buffered, you continue to squeeze out reps, continue to run at a high intensity, or you simply lift heavier weights for more reps.
How Well Does it Work?
Dr. Jeff Stout, one of the leading researchers in the field of sports supplements, recently tested the effects of beta-alanine. He examined the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on physical working capacity at fatigue threshold (PWCFT) in untrained young men. Subjects consumed either 1.6g of beta-alanine or sugar placebo four times per day for six days, then 3.2 grams per day for 22 days. What happened? The results revealed a significantly greater increase in PWCFT of 14.5%. Or in plain English, that’s better performance!! A greater work capacity must equal more reps and more sets in a given workout. There are other studies coming out on this new cool amino acid as well. Meanwhile, you ought to give it a shot and see what it does for you.
How to Use it.
According to Dr. Stout, “it appears the most effective way to take beta-alanine is to ingest six grams daily, in divided 4 to 8 doses, for at least two weeks to see its first effect.” The minimal dose seems to be in the 3 gram range. But why take it in divided dose throughout the day? One, there is a slight flushing / tingling effect with high doses (at or greater than 1.6 grams) called paraesthesia. This is resolved by taking smaller doses 8 times per day instead of 4 or by mixing it with food. Most people, however, are not bothered by paraesthesia. The second reason for taking multiple doses it to ensure a constant presence of beta-alanine which helps drive it into the muscle cell were it synthesizes into carnosine.
So there you have it. Add beta-alanine to your list of ‘must have’ supplements.
Side Bar – What’s the difference between beta-Alanine and L-alanine?
Beta-Alanine is the only naturally occurring beta amino acid; however, it is not used in the biosynthesis of any major proteins or enzymes also known as 3-aminopropionic acid.
It may improve performance by increasing ventilatory threshold (sometimes called lactate threshold) and muscular endurance.
L-Alanine (Ala) is a non-essential α-amino acid.
L-alanine is one of the 20 amino acids most widely used in protein synthesis, second to leucine; D-alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics also known as 2-aminopropanoic acid.
Special thanks to my good friend and colleague, Dr. Jeff Stout, University of Oklahoma, for edifying me on beta-alanine.
|08-30-2008, 01:43 AM||#2|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
Few words and article 2
Few words and article 2
"This one is a keeper for me. I have wanted to do L-Carnosine for a long time but cost has been the limiting factor. Carnosine always makes the top 5 supps every year for the life extension people. Now I have a product that IS increasing my performance and protecting my health.
I will just say this about performance increase. I was doing a set of 30 rep rack deads, i TOTALLY hit the wall at 24 reps and ground out rep 25 pretty ugly. I was going to rest-pause to 30. I rested long enough by experience to allow 1-2 reps max--I got 5.
Here is some more info:"
Carnosine, the new anti-aging supplement
by Marios Kyriazis MD
Although carnosine (also known as L-carnosine) has been known for about a century, its antiaging properties have only been extensively studied during the past few years. A recent literature review revealed over 780 published studies on carnosine, mainly by Russian and Japanese researchers. However, more widespread interest in this natural nontoxic product has recently increased, fuelled by dramatic Australian and British discoveries about its antiaging actions (1).
Carnosine (B-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally-occurring di-peptide (a combination of two amino acids), found in muscle, brain and other innervated animal and human tissues. It is formed by a process involving the enzyme carnosine-synthetase which bonds the amino acids alinine and histidine. This process occurs mainly in muscles and brain. It is kept in equilibrium by the carnisinases which are enzymes specifically aimed at inactivating carnosine in the tissues or in the blood.
to order carnosine article
There are several other related dipeptides such as carcinine, anserrine, homocarnosine and ophidine, all of which are naturally-occurring. These are believed to be buffering agents, helping to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium (2).
High concentrations of carnosine are present in long-lived cells (such as in neuronal tissues). The concentration of carnosine in muscles correlates with maximum lifespan, a fact that makes it a promising bio-marker of aging. It is high in actively contracting muscles and low in cases of muscular disease such as Duchennes's muscular dystrophy. Its concentration in mammalian muscles possibly decreases with age, a fact which strengthens the case for supplementation.
In cases of cataract in animals, carnosine concentration in the lens was found to be low. The lower the concentration of carnosine, the higher the severity of cataract. Rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet, were found to be well protected against atherosclerosis and cataract if given carnosine supplements. In another experiment, dogs were also found to be protected against cataract if given carnosine supplements (2).
Carnosine is widely believed to he an antioxidant which stabilizes and protects the cell membrane. Specifically, as a water-soluble free radical scavenger it prevents lipid peroxidation within the cell membrane (3). It is thought to be a natural counterpart to lipid-soluble antioxidants such as vitamin E. Maybe it is not a coincidence that carnosine increases vitamin E levels in rats.
Many antioxidants are aimed at preventing free radicals from entering the tissues, but have no effect after this first line of defense is broken. Carnosine is not only effective in prevention, but it is also active after free radicals react to form other dangerous compounds. So, it protects the tissues from these damaging 'second-wave' chemicals. For example, a highly reactive lipid peroxidation end-product called malondialdegyde (MDA)- a deleterious product of a free radical reaction- is blocked by carnosine (4,5). MDA, if left uncontrolled, can cause damage to lipids, enzymes and DNA, and plays a part in the process of atherosclerosis, joint inflammation, cataract formation, and aging in general. Carnosine, by reacting and inactivating MDA, sacrifices itself in order to protect the amino acids on the protein molecule.
Carnosine plays a part in neurotransmission, it is a heavy metal binder (chelates ionic metals) and modulates enzymatic activities. Other actions, some of which are not extensively studied include:
* anti-neoplastic properties, which make it a potentially beneficial agent for use in cancer prevention.
* immune booster (it stimulates maturation of immunocompetent cells), and reduces inflammation.
* wound healing properties and protection against radiation damage (both preventing damage and reversing the post-radiation syndrome). Laboratory animals treated with carnosine were found to have faster and better wound healing rates compared to controls. This has potential applications to treating burns, wounds following surgery, or during nutritional preparation for surgery (5).
* a reduction of gastric ulceration (particularly when the ulcer is related to stress), both by preventing the formation of the ulcer and by healing it (carnosine increases the formation of granulation tissue). It does not affect acid secretion.
Perhaps, the most important action of carnosine is its anti-glycosylation effect (8). One of the cardinal processes of aging, apart from free-radical damage, is the process of glycosylation (or glycation). During normal, everyday metabolism, sugar aldehydes may react with the mino acids on the protein molecule. The result is the formation of AGEs (Advance Glycosylation End-products). These are abnormal, cross-linked. oxidized products which are thought to cause extensive damage to the organism. Carnosine blocks this deleterious reaction. protecting against cross-linking of proteins, cross-linking of proteins to DNA molecules, and formation of other abnormal proteins, all of which are fundamental features of the aging process.
Other anti-glycators such as aminoguanidine may also protect against glycosylation hut not as effectively as carnosine. Some amino acids (arginine or lysine) are also able to combine with glucose in order to eliminate dangerous AGEs, but the end-product of this reaction is mutagenic (i.e. it may cause cancer). The combination of carnosine with glucose however is not mutagenic.
Specifically, carnosine reacts with and inactivates aldehydes and ketones. reducing protein glycosylation and the formation of AGEs. It also binds to already formed AGEs and inactivates them. Normally, AGEs are removed by scavenging macrophages (immune system cells) which carry special receptors called RAGEs. Carnosine facilitates this process of elimination, by helping macrophages to better recognize the AGE molecule. Because of its anti-glycosylation actions, carnosine may be useful in treating or preventing diabetic complications such as cataract, neuropathy and kidney failure.
In experiments, treatment with carnosine was found to reduce or completely prevent cell damage caused by beta amyloid (9), the substance found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Beta amyloid can interact with certain RAGE receptors causing damage to the nerves and arteries of the brain. Carnosine blocks and inactivates beta amyloid, so it protects neural tissues against diseases such as dementia.
There have been some concerns regarding carnosine's ability to form lipofuscin (the age pigment commonly found in the aging brain and in other tissues). Lipofuscin is merely a sign that other deleterious reactions have already taken place. For example; free radicals and toxic aldehydes may react with valuable proteins as described above, and cause damage, leaving lipofuscin as a left-over product. (Ed.-it may be advisable to take a lipofuscin supplement such as DMAE or acetyl L-carnitine while on a carnosine program). One way to save the protein molecule is to use carnosine instead. Carnosine actively and swiftly binds to aldehydes before these are able to cause any damage. The end-result of this reaction may also be inactive lipofuscin compounds.
In this case, lipofuscin is formed not by wasting valuable protein material but by using sacrificial carnosine, leaving the proteins free to function properly. Lipofuscin, however formed, is thought to be generally inactive to normally everyday situations. High amounts of free radicals and toxin in the organism are best inactivated by using supplementary carnosine than tissue protein. Of course, it would be best to reduce the exposure to too many free radicals in the first place. This can be achieved for example, by avoiding pollution, cigarette smoking, sedentary life, and unsuitable nutrition.
Use on Humans
After dozens of reports about carnosine's antiaging actions in laboratory experiments, the next logical step was to start using it on humans, specifically for antiaging purposes. Carnosine supplements have been used in the past by body-builders, athletes and others, but its use has been confined mainly for improving muscular fatigue, and not for longevity.
Recently, eye drops containing carnosine have been developed and used by Russian researchers (10). The drops were found to be effective in treating human corneal erosions and other corneal diseases. For example, carnosine drops accelerate the healing of ulcers in herpes and bacterial infections of the eye.
During a preliminary experiment designed specifically for antiaging (11), I used L-carnosine supplements (50 rng daily) on 20 healthy human volunteers, aged 40 - 75 years, for a period of 1-4 months. No side affects were reported. Five users noticed significant improvements in their facial appearance (firmer facial muscles), muscular stamina and general well-being. Five others reported possible benefits, for example better sleep patterns, improved clarity of thought and increased libido. The rest did not report any noticeable effects. This is not surprising because supplementation with carnosine is not expected to show any significant noticeable benefits in a short time, but it should be used as an insurance against deleterious effects of the aging process. If any benefits are noted, these should be considered as an added extra bonus. It is worthwhile persevering with the supplementation long term, even if you do not experience any obvious benefits, as you will still be well protected against aging.
Carnosine can be used together with vitamin E and/or Co-enzyme Q10 for full antioxidant protection, but even if it is used on its own it should still confer significant protection both against free radicals and against glycosylation.
Indeed, the carnosine preparation I used in my experiments contains also 30 IU of vitamin E as standard. Some people prefer lo use 100 mg of carnosine a day (i.e. double the initial standard dose) and they find that there are still no side effects. Foodstuffs containing dietary carnosine are lean red meat and chicken.
Where do we go from here? Further experiments are in progress, aimed at examining more widely the effects of carnosine on human aging. Those who want to he at the forefront of innovative antiaging medicine should he taking carnosine now. It is expected that carnosine supplementation will become much more widespread during the next five years, making carnosine as popular as vitamin E is today.
|08-30-2008, 01:44 AM||#3|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
From Poliquin's Site
From Poliquin's Site
A Big Breakthrough In The History Of Sports Supplements!
By Charles Poliquin
I am pleased announce the launch of a new product that could be the biggest breakthrough in the history of sports supplements – Beta Alanine Supreme.
This is a bold statement for certain, especially when not referring to simple creatine. I can say that a very select few coaches “in the know” have secretly suspected for awhile now has been only recently confirmed by science. They suspect that supplementation to increase muscular carnosine levels via beta alanine is FAR more effective when combined with creatine, over using beta alanine alone! (1)
It only makes sense that the two would be so synergistic, yet the sports supplement world has all but overlooked this fact in their haste to design their latest and greatest “magic bullet” for the masses. This is a shame, for sure, which is why Poliquin Performance will be the first company I know of to combine the two proper ingredients into one supplement designed for maximum results!
This is Beta-Alanine Supreme.
How does it work?
The effects of creatine monohydrate have been documented ad nauseam so we don’t need to rehash them here. There is, however, a relatively new compound on the supplement scene that is merely a non-essential amino acid, called beta-alanine (?-alanine) – (not to be confused with L-Alanine.) It was discovered to be the rate-limiting precursor of muscular carnosine levels. Therefore, carnosine levels can only increase when more ?-alanine is supplied.
Why is this important? Well, by increasing carnosine levels in the muscles, many favorable results are obtained:
A very dramatic increase in work capacity.
An increase of the anaerobic threshold.
An increase in lean muscle mass and rate of recovery.
Dramatic strength Increases.
A reduction in body fat. (1) (2)
Obviously, those results are all favorable. My theory, however, is where this discussion gets really exciting. By combining a proper daily dose (4-6 grams) of ?-alanine along with a solid maintenance dose of creatine monohydrate, the end result is enhanced literally exponentially over ?-alanine alone.
Science has confirmed that changes in lean mass and body fat reduction were significantly greater with a test group supplementing with ?-alanine + creatine monohydrate versus a test group supplementing with just creatine. In addition, the good news is these tests were performed on collegiate football players rather than some untrained geeks normally used in these types of studies. (1)
Again, this is a theory I have been putting to the test with some of my elite athletes. I know for certain that it works. While I didn’t need science to reassure me on this point, it’s always a nice thing!
After designing Beta-Alanine Supreme, I noticed that some of the other beta alanine products on the market had some obvious but nearly fatal flaws. Not the least of which seems to be that many companies under-dose the beta alanine portion, obviously to skimp on cost. What’s the point of doing something half-assed? In many cases, you only get one chance to do something right so let’s make sure we ingest enough beta alanine for its intended purpose the first time!
Some of the other issues I saw were the obvious lack of creatine in the products I examined. This is most likely due to the supplement companies simply not knowing any better.
I also saw more price gouging per unit of sale than all the oil companies combined when I first searched for this product, so I have included a handy price chart below to assure you that you are getting the maximum for your money and no longer a need to take out a loan just to use beta alanine properly.
Lastly and completely unbeknownst to me is this – why do some companies stuff their capsules full of unneeded fillers? We want more of the active ingredients, not unnecessary junk. As a result, I contract my capsules to have nothing added that doesn’t need to be there, simple as that!
What can it do for you?
The research says that you should give it about 4 weeks to take full effect. However, in practice I have seen it work much quicker than that.
One of my athletes tried my Super Accumulation program (two weeks of near-death, every-day training (intentional overtraining) followed up with about 7 days of complete rest, doing nothing more than different variations of pull-ups and trap bar deadifts. The only other variance in his routine was adding beta alanine supreme. To my client’s delight, he gained 8 pounds of muscle during the overcompensation period!
The results have been nothing short of staggering. It almost sounds too good to be true. Each capsule of Beta-alanine Supreme contains 400 mg of Beta-Alanine and 350 mg of creatine monohydrate. My recent Biosignature Level 2 students were the first ones to try this new product in training, and they were buying by the case after just one workout of trying it. Through nutritional kinesiology we were able to determine with the help of Dr. Dunn that higher dosages work best
How much should you take?
Here is a protocol that works for most individuals:
10 caps each 20 and 40 minutes into the workout on training days
10 caps at breakfast, 10 caps at lunch on non-training days
Give a try As soon as possible. Your training log will show you how great Beta-Alanine Supreme supports your training efforts.
Order some today! Click here to review the product in our store.
1: Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Aug; 16(4): 430-46.Links
Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and
endocrine responses in strength/power athletes.
Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J.
Dept. of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing,
NJ 08628, USA.
2. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Aug 9; [Epub ahead of print] Click here to read Links
Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and
attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained
Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris R, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise
JA, Achten E. Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent,
|08-30-2008, 01:44 AM||#4|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
Words from multiple users at multiple boards-
Words from multiple users at multiple boards-
"Beta Alanine is one of the few real supplements that will improve your performance. I have been using 6-9 grams a day religiously since December. It is wonderful for training like I do, allowing more reps, longer pulls, and shorter rest periods.
I am working on a new BCAA and Beta Alanine protocol that may very well do some AMAZING things for endurance, recovery, fat loss, and potentially muscle sparing.
2-3 g Beta alanine
Read on BA displacing Taurine . .low Taurine levels can leave you feeling anxiety or difficulty calming + it's a powerful antioxidant in the liver.
Hence the concurrent dosing.
I'll do the above 3x/d
Biggest change was big increases in arm/delt moves . .bigger muscle groups did not seem to respond as dramatically.
My sense is that smaller muscles tended to fall prey to lactate/pH change sooner so the buffering is more pronounced.
Either way . .curls and overhead press went way up
"some use it 3-4 times per day spread out. we recommend trying it pre workout at 2-3g and work your way up to 5-6g or you can take the 5g spread out 3 times per days or 2.5g pre and post workout. just experiment with it. it can make you feel like you are crawling out of your skin a bit if you take too much.
doug " (co-owner of TP.com)
"Don't take more than 4-5gr a day, it's a complete waste. You will feel the difference after 1-2week, the peak is at about 3-4 weeks and will continue to peak until week 12. Based off the current research, I suggest 4 grams of beta-alanine a day, with an “optional” 2 week loading phase of 6 grams a day during the first month of use.
After the first dose, you will experience intense vasodilatation/pumps. Because beta-alanine increases carnosine and carnosine is a powerful precursor in generating nitric oxide synthase.
[Originally Posted by Gozzish View Post
Took 2 grams pre and post workout this morning and alll went well, will take another dose later today]
[Originally Posted by Buff0910 View Post
Thats what I do, 2g pre and post and 2g before supper. I have taken up to 4g at a time and really felt no effects though.]
Thats the best dosing out of everybody so far. I do the exact same thing and on non-workout days I take 2g with my morning shake and 2g with an afternoon shake.
Here is what is proven to work from the latest research (muscle carnosine levels up by over 80%!!). Basically 4-6.4g divided up into multiple doses less than 1g each (placebo group given maltodextrin tabs instead). I never did this because its too much work. Maybe with the capsule machine I just ordered I'll make 650mg caps and take 5 per day in 1 pill doses.
"GOD I can't get enough of this stuff. This is my all time favorite supplement. I would even drop Creatine for this if I had to choose.
My lifts are going up very fast like I'm bulking but I'm massively hypo-caloric, losing 2lbs fat/week (1000kcal/day below maintenance).
Something to keep in mind for all new users. You won't notice the effect for weeks. At least two weeks for it to fully kick in. Then after that it gets more and more unbelievable.
I quit for a few weeks to totally go back to baseline as a test. Right now I'm at week 4 RE-loading BA at 4+g /day.
I just absolutely smoked my lifts this week and last.
|08-30-2008, 01:45 AM||#5|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
It turns out beta-alanine being a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport has been well know for quite awhile. The reason is that taurine and BA are actually structural analogues. This means they are different chemicals with very similar 3-D shapes and positioning of functional groups. More specifically the only difference between taurine and BA is the carboxyl group on BA is replaced by a sulfate group in taurine. Without efficient taurine transport in your brain you can become deficient and develop problems with vision and your heart.
Important point though:
The doses used below on the cats are 5% solution of BA in their drinking water for 20 days. This would work out to over 100g/day of BA for a adult person based on my calculations.
So I still maintain that 12g/day would likely be fine. This is because at the lower doses proven effective for elevating carnosine there should not be much interference with taurine as the BA will be preferentially sequestered in muscle cells and excess will be cleared from our system rapidly.
So the main point here is that 4-6 grams/day of BA divided up into 6 doses or more has been proven to elevate muscle carnosine substantially....so there is no need to take much more than that. 12g would probably be harmless, but I have no proof of that. So why risk it when 4g is known to be fine.
I take taurine and BA but I never take them together since I know they are structural analogues and competitive inhibitors of each other.
Its a pain because you want the benefits of both before your workout. Chances are at the 2g dose BA will not interfere significantly with your taurine, but I'm not sure so I don't bother.
A similar type of dilemma emerges with arginine and NAC, since NAC can inhibit NOS, which is required to make NO from arginine. I talked about this elsewhere http://forums.trueprotein.com/showth...&highlight=NAC.
I figure at 1g NAC though I should still get a pump from my No Holds NO.
Here is an example reference:
Depletion of feline taurine levels by b-alanine and dietary taurine restriction. Sturman, John A.; Messing, Jeffrey M. Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY, USA. Nutrition Research (New York) (1996), 16(5), 789-795. Publisher: Elsevier, CODEN: NTRSDC ISSN: 0271-5317. Journal written in English. CAN 125:9381 AN 1996:333481 CAPLUS
b-Alanine, a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport, was used to perturb taurine stores in cats, a species dependent on dietary taurine to maintain such stores. b-Alanine was supplied in the drinking water for 20 wk to cats receiving adequate taurine nutrition and to cats that had been deprived of dietary taurine for a long period of time. Tissue taurine concns. were greatly reduced in both groups of cats. Large amts. of b-alanine accumulated in visceral tissues of both groups of cats and in neural tissues of taurine-deprived cats, but only small amts. accumulated in neural tissues of taurine-supplemented cats. Bile acids conjugated to b-alanine were found in bile, esp. of taurine-deprived cats.
|08-30-2008, 01:45 AM||#6|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
Influence of b-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Hill, C. A.; Harris, R. C.; Kim, H. J.; Harris, B. D.; Sale, C.; Boobis, L. H.; Kim, C. K.; Wise, J. A. School of Sports, Exercise & Health Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, UK. Amino Acids (2007), 32(2), 225-233. Publisher: Springer Wien, CODEN: AACIE6 ISSN: 0939-4451. Journal written in English. CAN 146:337075 AN 2007:118274 CAPLUS
Muscle carnosine synthesis is limited by the availability of b-alanine. Thirteen male subjects were supplemented with b-alanine (CarnoSyn) for 4 wks, 8 of these for 10 wks. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis was obtained from 6 of the 8 at 0, 4 and 10 wks. Subjects undertook a cycle capacity test to det. total work done (TWD) at 110% (CCT110%) of their max. power (Wmax). Twelve matched subjects received a placebo. Eleven of these completed the CCT110% at 0 and 4 wks, and 8, 10 wks. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 5 of the 8 and one addnl. subject. Muscle carnosine was significantly increased by +58.8% and +80.1% after 4 and 10 wks b-alanine supplementation. Carnosine, initially 1.71 times higher in type IIa fibers, increased equally in both type I and IIa fibers. No increase was seen in control subjects. Taurine was unchanged by 10 wks of supplementation. 4 wks b-alanine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TWD (+13.0%); with a further +3.2% increase at 10 wks. TWD was unchanged at 4 and 10 wks in the control subjects. The increase in TWD with supplementation followed the increase in muscle carnosine.
And some key stuff I pasted from the article....for those who always question.
Twenty-five physically active male subjects, mainly undergraduate and
postgraduate students at the University of Chichester, volunteered to participate
in the study. None of the subjects were actively involved at the time
in a structured training programme. Subject details are given in Table 1.
Subjects were judged to be clinically healthy based on a health-history
questionnaire. They were required not to have taken any form of sports
supplement for at least 6 weeks prior to commencing the study and were
requested not to change their current level of physical activity for the
duration of the study or their average diet. None of the subjects were
vegetarian and had estimated daily intakes of b-alanine from the digestion
of histidine dipeptides in meat of 250–750mg daily (estimates based on
values of histidine dipeptide contents in Abe, 2000). The Ethics Review
Committee of the University of Chichester approved the study and all
subjects provided written informed consent prior to participation.
Each subject first completed a preliminary assessment to confirm that they
met the selection criteria for the study after which they were allocated to
one of two treatment groups. Following a cycle performance test subjects
were supplemented for 4 or 10 weeks with either b-alanine (b-Ala, n¼13)
or a matching placebo (P, n¼12). Allocation to treatments was randomized.
b-alanine (CarnoSynTM) was obtained from Natural Alternatives
International, San Marcos, USA. Details of the specific dosing strategies
employed for both groups are provided in Table 2. As in a previous study
(Harris et al., 2006), b-alanine was administered each day as 8 divided
doses, with the dose increasing during the first 4 weeks. 800mg b-alanine
corresponds to the amount in dipeptide form available from 100 g of whale
beef, 150 g turkey breast meat (Abe, 2000) or 100 g north-Atlantic seaprawns
(unpublished observations). Administration of the treatments was
Table 2. Dosing strategies employed for the two treatment groups
Week Dosing times Per
9 am 10 am 11 am 12 am 3 pm 4 pm 5 pm 6 pm TOTAL
1 800 mg 400mg 400 mg 400 mg 800mg 400mg 400 mg 400 mg 4.0 g
2 800 mg 400mg 400 mg 800 mg 800mg 400mg 400 mg 800 mg 4.8 g
3 800 mg 400mg 800 mg 800 mg 800mg 400mg 800 mg 800 mg 5.6 g
4 800 mg 800mg 800 mg 800 mg 800mg 800mg 800 mg 800 mg 6.4 g
5–10 800 mg 800mg 800 mg 800 mg 800mg 800mg 800 mg 800 mg 6.4 g
Total: 146 g b-alanine (b-Ala) or maltodextrin (P)
|08-30-2008, 01:45 AM||#7|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
BTW, here's Justin Harris' brief response:
"However, concentrations up to 1 mM of L- and D-alanine, taurine, and -aminoisobutyric acid did not affect beta-alanine uptake"
"The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine homeostasis occurs predominantly via changes in the activity of the high-affinity taurine transport system by alterations in the uptake capacity and with an unaffected half-saturation constant. An adaptive response was not observed for the structurally related beta-alanine. 3. Only colchicine, which interferes with microtubule organization, was capable of blocking the response to alterations of taurine in cell medium, whereas inhibition of protein and nucleic acid synthesis by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, respectively, did not change the adaptive pattern."
"a recent study by Dr. Harris, showed that the increase in muscle carnosine with beta-alanine was not reduced when taurine was taken along with it."
Everything I've read shows that histidine supplementation provides no real benefit.
with B-alanine being the limitin amino, you're probably never really going to even get the B-alanine concentration up to the histidine concentration. And...if by some chance you could, the body would probably just convert the histidine from another substance.
I tend to only dose on training days....
There's still a ton of info to gather, and all things being equal, the carnosine concentration is a gradual build up....so daily dosing would probably be the most effecient option.
With looking at all the current studies I can find...It looks like a combo of a few products, beta alanine and creatine being just two of them, could theoretically be combined to maximize all the energy pathways used during most short to moderate duration exercises.
This would include short burst athletics like weight training, football, basketball, hockey, powerlifting, etc., etc.
Being an amino acid, and considering the sodium transport, insulin SHOULD greatly improve the uptake of the beta-alanine.
So, a rapid digesting carb source...or other "insulin potentiating ingredient" should provide additional benefit.
That Dr. Harris is the same Dr. to bring creatine to the forefront of exercise science in 1992.
"Since there is a group of studies that used either beta-alanine by itself or beta-alanine with taurine, we examined them to determine if there were any differences in the resulting carnosine concentrations. While more research is always needed, there are quite a few beta-alanine vs. beta-alanine plus taurine studies, and their outcomes are all the same.
There is little to no difference in carnosine concentrations. In other words, taurine does not appear to inhibit beta-alanine from being absorbed to any level of significance, otherwise carnosine levels would have been lower in the beta-alanine plus taurine studies."
There are two types of Taurine uptake. There is high affinity uptake, and low affinity uptake.
"The requirement of high-affinity taurine uptake on a sodium gradient was examined by utilizing monensin, and the metabolic poisons, 2,4-dinitrophenol and ouabain. The major findings are as follows: 1) One sodium ion is co-transported with each taurine molecule; 2) the high-affinity uptake process is driven by the sodium concentration gradient across the membrane; 3) sodium increases the maximal velocity rather than the affinity of the high-affinity taurine carrier for the taurine molecule; 4) one taurine molecule is transported per carrier for both the high- and low-affinity taurine uptake systems; and 5) high-affinity taurine uptake is an energy-dependent process. "
Beta-alanine involves multiple ions of sodium. It also appears that Clorine is essential for the transporter.
"The sigmoidal profile of -alanine uptake with respect to Na+ shows the involvement of multiple ions of sodium in the transport process. A Hill coefficient of 2.6 ± 0.4 indicates that at least two sodium ions are cotransported with -alanine. The flux of -alanine was also shown to be chlorine dependent. The substitution of this anion with gluconate, even in the presence of Na+, reduced the intracellular concentrative accumulation of -alanine to passive diffusion level, indicating that both Na+ and Cl are essential for the activity of this transporter"
Another study also states that "many new transport systems are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for oral drug delivery or treatments for neurological disorders. Only with knowledge of the basic functional characteristics of any particular transport system can the likely physiological or pathophysiological roles of each transport system be predicted and rational approaches to drug design developed."
It is likely that there are other transport systems, MANY even, that are uknown, under-studied, misunderstood, etc. The human body is incredibly complex, and there is always new information coming out.
What these are showing is that while Beta-Alanine and Taurine compete for the same uptake receptors, the end concentraion of Carnosine isn't changed when taurine and beta-alanine are combined.
It is important to remember that Carnosine is what is causing the benefits of beta-alanine. Beta-alanine is just one of the amino acids in the di-peptide carnosine molecule. Histidine is the other one (those that attended our seminar will remember the debate/argument about Histidine being an essential amino acid.
Beta-alanine works because it is more 'robust' (not to put too fine a point on it) than carnosine. When pure carnosine is ingested, it will just be broken down by the body to beta-alanine and histidine, which will then be RE-FORMED to carnosine after this process.
Since beta-alanine is the limiting protein in carnosine (again...those from the seminar will remember this term), and the absorption is likely higher than pure carnosine, it is actually more beneficial to supplement with beta-alanine than it is to supplement with carnosine....even though carnosine is what you want in the end.
Beta-alanine is an exciting supplement, and one that I intend on using in a product very soon. I am in the process of formulating a whole new line of supplements geared entirely towards performance and strength enhancement.
A supplement line targeting athletes, strength competitors, and ANYONE looking to directly improve their performance via supplementation.
|08-30-2008, 01:47 AM||#8|
Teen Forum Moderator
Join Date: Dec 2006
Sums It Up
Sums It Up
"So to sum up . .BA + Taurine can be taken concurrently and levels maintined of both
BA + Creatine seems to have the greatest hypertrophic and lactate bearing effect
BA works with Histidine to elevate the Carnosine in the muscles maximally, but given the rich supply of histidine in the food supply, a cocktail of the two is uneccessary
Because the aborption can be potentiated via insulin, a high glycemic carb + a glucose clearing agent ( eg. R-ALA ) would increase absorption and effectiveness
Sodium Chloride is needed to succesfully absorb both Taurine and BA so add a little salt to your mix above is likely a good idea.
By George, I think I got it . .
|08-30-2008, 12:41 PM||#9|
Join Date: Sep 2007
Location: Fort. McMurray
Interesting. Poliquin recommends taking this stuff during workouts. Would 40G of BCAA's also be taken at the same time now?
Someone should just make a BCAA/Beta-A/Creatine mix lol.
IA Trainee Nov '06 - April '09
|08-30-2008, 03:16 PM||#10|
Join Date: Jul 2006
Location: Ft McMurray - We have the Energy.
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